雪花算法和几个工具类

一.雪花算法

1.为什么使用

  • 当一个表的数据量非常大的时候 肯定要分库分表 此时id如果是自增长 分开之后就会出现id相同的情况

2.工具类

import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.NetworkInterface;

/**
 * <p>名称:IdWorker.java</p>
 * <p>描述:分布式自增长ID</p>
 * <pre>
 *     Twitter的 Snowflake JAVA实现方案
 * </pre>
 * 核心代码为其IdWorker这个类实现,其原理结构如下,我分别用一个0表示一位,用—分割开部分的作用:
 * 1||0---0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0 --- 00000 ---00000 ---000000000000
 * 在上面的字符串中,第一位为未使用(实际上也可作为long的符号位),接下来的41位为毫秒级时间,
 * 然后5位datacenter标识位,5位机器ID(并不算标识符,实际是为线程标识),
 * 然后12位该毫秒内的当前毫秒内的计数,加起来刚好64位,为一个Long型。
 * 这样的好处是,整体上按照时间自增排序,并且整个分布式系统内不会产生ID碰撞(由datacenter和机器ID作区分),
 * 并且效率较高,经测试,snowflake每秒能够产生26万ID左右,完全满足需要。
 * <p>
 * 64位ID (42(毫秒)+5(机器ID)+5(业务编码)+12(重复累加))
 *
 * @author Polim
 */
public class IdWorker {
    // 时间起始标记点,作为基准,一般取系统的最近时间(一旦确定不能变动)
    private final static long twepoch = 1288834974657L;
    // 机器标识位数
    private final static long workerIdBits = 5L;
    // 数据中心标识位数
    private final static long datacenterIdBits = 5L;
    // 机器ID最大值
    private final static long maxWorkerId = -1L ^ (-1L << workerIdBits);
    // 数据中心ID最大值
    private final static long maxDatacenterId = -1L ^ (-1L << datacenterIdBits);
    // 毫秒内自增位
    private final static long sequenceBits = 12L;
    // 机器ID偏左移12位
    private final static long workerIdShift = sequenceBits;
    // 数据中心ID左移17位
    private final static long datacenterIdShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits;
    // 时间毫秒左移22位
    private final static long timestampLeftShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits + datacenterIdBits;

    private final static long sequenceMask = -1L ^ (-1L << sequenceBits);
    /* 上次生产id时间戳 */
    private static long lastTimestamp = -1L;
    // 0,并发控制
    private long sequence = 0L;

    private final long workerId;
    // 数据标识id部分
    private final long datacenterId;

    public IdWorker(){
        this.datacenterId = getDatacenterId(maxDatacenterId);
        this.workerId = getMaxWorkerId(datacenterId, maxWorkerId);
    }
    /**
     * @param workerId
     *            工作机器ID
     * @param datacenterId
     *            序列号
     */
    public IdWorker(long workerId, long datacenterId) {
        if (workerId > maxWorkerId || workerId < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("worker Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxWorkerId));
        }
        if (datacenterId > maxDatacenterId || datacenterId < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("datacenter Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxDatacenterId));
        }
        this.workerId = workerId;
        this.datacenterId = datacenterId;
    }
    /**
     * 获取下一个ID
     *
     * @return
     */
    public synchronized long nextId() {
        long timestamp = timeGen();
        if (timestamp < lastTimestamp) {
            throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Clock moved backwards.  Refusing to generate id for %d milliseconds", lastTimestamp - timestamp));
        }

        if (lastTimestamp == timestamp) {
            // 当前毫秒内,则+1
            sequence = (sequence + 1) & sequenceMask;
            if (sequence == 0) {
                // 当前毫秒内计数满了,则等待下一秒
                timestamp = tilNextMillis(lastTimestamp);
            }
        } else {
            sequence = 0L;
        }
        lastTimestamp = timestamp;
        // ID偏移组合生成最终的ID,并返回ID
        long nextId = ((timestamp - twepoch) << timestampLeftShift)
                | (datacenterId << datacenterIdShift)
                | (workerId << workerIdShift) | sequence;

        return nextId;
    }

    private long tilNextMillis(final long lastTimestamp) {
        long timestamp = this.timeGen();
        while (timestamp <= lastTimestamp) {
            timestamp = this.timeGen();
        }
        return timestamp;
    }

    private long timeGen() {
        return System.currentTimeMillis();
    }

    /**
     * <p>
     * 获取 maxWorkerId
     * </p>
     */
    protected static long getMaxWorkerId(long datacenterId, long maxWorkerId) {
        StringBuffer mpid = new StringBuffer();
        mpid.append(datacenterId);
        String name = ManagementFactory.getRuntimeMXBean().getName();
        if (!name.isEmpty()) {
         /*
          * GET jvmPid
          */
            mpid.append(name.split("@")[0]);
        }
      /*
       * MAC + PID 的 hashcode 获取16个低位
       */
        return (mpid.toString().hashCode() & 0xffff) % (maxWorkerId + 1);
    }

    /**
     * <p>
     * 数据标识id部分
     * </p>
     */
    protected static long getDatacenterId(long maxDatacenterId) {
        long id = 0L;
        try {
            InetAddress ip = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
            NetworkInterface network = NetworkInterface.getByInetAddress(ip);
            if (network == null) {
                id = 1L;
            } else {
                byte[] mac = network.getHardwareAddress();
                id = ((0x000000FF & (long) mac[mac.length - 1])
                        | (0x0000FF00 & (((long) mac[mac.length - 2]) << 8))) >> 6;
                id = id % (maxDatacenterId + 1);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.out.println(" getDatacenterId: " + e.getMessage());
        }
        return id;
    }


}

2.使用

  1. 在配置文件写入
yzx: #项目名
  worker:
    workerId: 1	#工作机器ID
    datacenterId: 1	#序列号
  1. 将配置文件读成实体类
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "yzx.worker")
public class IdWorkerProperties {

    private long workerId;// 当前机器id

    private long datacenterId;// 序列号

    public long getWorkerId() {
        return workerId;
    }

    public void setWorkerId(long workerId) {
        this.workerId = workerId;
    }

    public long getDatacenterId() {
        return datacenterId;
    }

    public void setDatacenterId(long datacenterId) {
        this.datacenterId = datacenterId;
    }
}

  1. 给Spring注入配置好的IdWorker
@Configuration
@EnableConfigurationProperties(IdWorkerProperties.class)
public class IdWorkerConfig {

    @Bean
    public IdWorker idWorker(IdWorkerProperties prop) {
        return new IdWorker(prop.getWorkerId(), prop.getDatacenterId());
    }
}
  1. 调用注入的IdWorker 生成id
@Service
public class TestService {

    @Autowired
    private IdWorker idWorker;

	public void test() {
        // 生成orderId
        long id = idWorker.nextId();
    }
    
}

二.几个工具类

1.JsonUtils

  • 序列化和反序列化json
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
	<artifactId>slf4j-api</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.type.TypeReference;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.lang.Nullable;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

public class JsonUtils {

    public static final ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JsonUtils.class);

    @Nullable
    public static String serialize(Object obj) {
        if (obj == null) {
            return null;
        }
        if (obj.getClass() == String.class) {
            return (String) obj;
        }
        try {
            return mapper.writeValueAsString(obj);
        } catch (JsonProcessingException e) {
            logger.error("json序列化出错:" + obj, e);
            return null;
        }
    }

    @Nullable
    public static <T> T parse(String json, Class<T> tClass) {
        try {
            return mapper.readValue(json, tClass);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            logger.error("json解析出错:" + json, e);
            return null;
        }
    }

    @Nullable
    public static <E> List<E> parseList(String json, Class<E> eClass) {
        try {
            return mapper.readValue(json, mapper.getTypeFactory().constructCollectionType(List.class, eClass));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            logger.error("json解析出错:" + json, e);
            return null;
        }
    }

    @Nullable
    public static <K, V> Map<K, V> parseMap(String json, Class<K> kClass, Class<V> vClass) {
        try {
            return mapper.readValue(json, mapper.getTypeFactory().constructMapType(Map.class, kClass, vClass));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            logger.error("json解析出错:" + json, e);
            return null;
        }
    }

    @Nullable
    public static <T> T nativeRead(String json, TypeReference<T> type) {
        try {
            return mapper.readValue(json, type);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            logger.error("json解析出错:" + json, e);
            return null;
        }
    }
}

2.ObjectUtils

  • 解析object类型的对象
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
	<artifactId>commons-lang3</artifactId>
</dependency>
import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;

/**
 * Object类型转换为具体类型可能出现空指针,
 * 这个工具类进行了一些转换
 */
public class ObjectUtils {

    public static String toString(Object obj) {
        if (obj == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return obj.toString();
    }

    public static Long toLong(Object obj) {
        if (obj == null) {
            return 0L;
        }
        if (obj instanceof Double || obj instanceof Float) {
            return Long.valueOf(StringUtils.substringBefore(obj.toString(), "."));
        }
        if (obj instanceof Number) {
            return Long.valueOf(obj.toString());
        }
        if (obj instanceof String) {
            return Long.valueOf(obj.toString());
        } else {
            return 0L;
        }
    }

    public static Integer toInt(Object obj) {
        return toLong(obj).intValue();
    }
}

3.CodecUtils

  • 加密算法
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
	<artifactId>commons-lang3</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
     <groupId>commons-codec</groupId>
     <artifactId>commons-codec</artifactId>
     <version>1.11</version>
</dependency>
import org.apache.commons.codec.digest.DigestUtils;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;

import java.util.UUID;

public class CodecUtils {


    /*
     * md5加密
     *  data:要加密的字符串
     *  salt:盐
     */
    public static String md5Hex(String data,String salt) {
        if (StringUtils.isBlank(salt)) {
            salt = data.hashCode() + "";
        }
        return DigestUtils.md5Hex(salt + DigestUtils.md5Hex(data));
    }

    /*
     *  sha加密
     *  data:要加密的字符串
     *  salt:盐
     */
    public static String shaHex(String data, String salt) {
        if (StringUtils.isBlank(salt)) {
            salt = data.hashCode() + "";
        }
        return DigestUtils.sha512Hex(salt + DigestUtils.sha512Hex(data));
    }

    /*
     * 生成盐
     */
    public static String generateSalt(){
        return StringUtils.replace(UUID.randomUUID().toString(), "-", "");
    }
}

4.NumberUtils

  • 数字相关的工具类
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.math.RoundingMode;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.regex.MatchResult;
import java.util.regex.Matcher;
import java.util.regex.Pattern;

public class NumberUtils {

    public static boolean isInt(Double num) {
        return num.intValue() == num;
    }

    /**
     * 判断字符串是否是数值格式
     * @param str
     * @return
     */
    public static boolean isDigit(String str){
        if(str == null || str.trim().equals("")){
            return false;
        }
        return str.matches("^\\d+$");
    }

    /**
     * 将一个小数精确到指定位数
     * @param num
     * @param scale
     * @return
     */
    public static double scale(double num, int scale) {
        BigDecimal bd = new BigDecimal(num);
        return bd.setScale(scale, RoundingMode.HALF_UP).doubleValue();
    }

    // 从字符串中根据正则表达式寻找,返回找到的数字数组
    public static Double[] searchNumber(String value, String regex){
        List<Double> doubles = new ArrayList<>();
        Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(regex);
        Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(value);
        if(matcher.find()) {
            MatchResult result = matcher.toMatchResult();
            for (int i = 1; i <= result.groupCount(); i++) {
                doubles.add(Double.valueOf(result.group(i)));
            }
        }
        return doubles.toArray(new Double[doubles.size()]);
    }

    /**
     * 生成指定位数的随机数字
     * @param len
     * @return
     */
    public static String generateCode(int len){
        len = Math.min(len, 8);
        int min = Double.valueOf(Math.pow(10, len - 1)).intValue();
        int num = new Random().nextInt(Double.valueOf(Math.pow(10, len + 1)).intValue() - 1) + min;
        return String.valueOf(num).substring(0,len);
    }
}

5.BeanUtils

  • 从上下文中获得bean
public class BeanUtils {
	
    public static <T> T getBean(Class<T> clazz, HttpServletRequest request){
        WebApplicationContext applicationContext = WebApplicationContextUtils.getRequiredWebApplicationContext(request.getServletContext());
        return applicationContext.getBean(clazz);
    }
}
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